Geophysics is the science that deals with the study of the earth in terms of physical principles. Its objective includes the study and investigation of the phenomena that are related to the structure, the history of the evolution of the planet Earth and its physical conditions.
The Royal Academy summarizes the meaning of geophysics as part of the geology that is responsable for the study of terrestrial physics as such.
The geophysical prospecting is a set of physical and mathematical techniques, applied to the exploration of the subsoil for the search and study of deposits of useful substances (oil, groundwater, minerals, coal, etc.), by observations made on the Earth´s surface.
Through the application of geophysical methods it is possible to determine the stratification of soils and rocks, measuring the changes of physical characteristics of the materials, such as speed of wave propagation, the resistivity and conductivity of the subsoil and magnetic susceptibility, among others.